Current through a Capacitor
A request has been made, via this website, for an explanation as to how an electric current passes through a capacitor - a passive, electronic component comprising two electrically conductive plates in close proximity, separated by an insulator.
Whilst this website does not offer tutorials, it shall provide a simple answer to the above for those few, curious questioners.
As a changing electric current electrifies a capacitor plate, a proportional magnetic field is established & thence a displacement current (a time-varying electric field) which passes freely through the dielectric material to the opposite plate. Displacement current is a variant form of electric current & does not observe Ohm's Law; it streams effortlessly through free space & dielectric materials in the same way electric current (charged particles in motion) flows through a conductor. Wherever time-varying electric fields are in-play, charges (in the form of magnetic fields) will be traversing.
Capacitive reactance, denoted by Xc, is the frequency dependant resistance of a capacitor calculated by the formula:
Xc = 1/f c (6.28)
where f is frequency in Hertz (Hz) & c is capacitance in Farads (F).
By substituting values into the formula, it will be noted that Xc decreases with increasing frequency. Higher frequencies stimulate & intensify field activity within the device itself owing to their amassed energy, & this serves to further animate the displacement current so reducing Xc.
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